Exploring the Science of Habits: A Fundamental Perspective on Habit Formation and Change

12-minute read

The Impact of Habits on Consumer Behavior

Habits make up large part of our behavioral and cognitive lives, with research suggesting that nearly half of our daily behaviors are repeated in the same place almost every day (Neal et al, 2006). Isn’t it surprising that almost half of the things you do in each day are not the result of conscious decisions, but behaviors that have become automatic? You no longer think about them, you just do them.

In the field of marketing, understanding consumer habits is critical to identifying opportunities to create or change behaviors that align with a brand's products or services. While many articles have been written on the topic of habits in marketing and focus on practical applications, here we try to get deeper into the underlying theory and history.

This blog aims to explore the fundamental concepts and ideas related to habits, giving readers a more comprehensive understanding of the topic and how it relates to consumer behavior and marketing. 

A History of Habit Research in Psychology and Neuroscience

The study of habits has a long history in psychology and neuroscience, dating back to the late 19th century with William James' work on the role of repetition and reinforcement in shaping behavior. James' ideas laid the foundation for later research on habits and behavior.

In the early 20th century, behaviorists such as Pavlov and Skinner conducted research on classical and operant conditioning, providing further insight into the mechanisms of habit formation. Pavlov's work on classical conditioning showed that habits can be formed by repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response that leads to a reward, while Skinner's work on operant conditioning showed that habitual behavior can be shaped through reinforcement, where behaviors followed by positive consequences are more likely to be repeated and those followed by negative consequences are less likely to be repeated.

These studies led to the view that habits are behaviors rooted in stimulus-response associations acquired through reinforcement-based learning (Smith and Graybiel, 2016). This view typically contrasts habits with goal-directed behaviors, which assume that actions are selected according to associations with the expected outcomes (Dickinson, 1985). In contrast to habits, goal-directed behaviors are performed with a specific purpose or outcome in mind and are guided by plans, intentions, and expectations (Robbins and Costa, 2017).

To date, this stimulus-response vs. action-outcome framework has yielded a significant number of studies on the neural basis of habit formation, particularly using nonhuman animal models (Balleine and Dickinson, 1998). More recently, neuroscientists have also used imaging techniques in human participants to study the brain regions and mechanisms involved in habit formation and change (Yin and Knowlton 2006). 

Meanwhile, theoretical models for habit change have also been proposed by psychological studies. In the 1960s and 1970s, researchers such as James Prochaska and Carlo DiClemente developed the transtheoretical model of change, which proposed that habit change goes through different stages and that the key to successful habit change is to understand an individual's current stage of change and tailor interventions accordingly (Prochaska and DiClemente, 1982). Later, researchers such as Gollwitzer introduced the concept of implementation intentions (Gollwitzer, 1999), which refers to a self-regulatory strategy in the form of an "if-then plan" that can help in habit and behavior change as well as goal attainment (Adriaanse et al., 2011).

With these historical underpinnings in mind, the following sections explore the topic of habit formation and habit change. 

The Process of Habit Formation

Habit formation is the process by which a behavior becomes automatic through repetition and reinforcement (Neal et al., 2006). The process of habit formation can be broken down into several stages.

The first stage is the cue or trigger that initiates the behavior. This could be a certain time of day, a certain place, a certain physical or physiological (visceral) stimulus, or a certain emotional state (Lally et al., 2010).

The second stage is the routine, which is the actual behavior that is performed. For example, this could be a specific task or action such as exercising, eating a certain food, or checking social media.

The third stage is the reward, which reinforces the behavior and makes it more likely to be repeated in the future. This can be something tangible such as a delicious meal or something intangible such as a sense of accomplishment.

The final stage is the belief, which is the individual's perception of the behavior. It can be positive or negative. This perception will cause the behavior to be repeated or not.

As a behavior is repeated and reinforced over time, it becomes more automatic and less dependent on conscious thought. This is known as the habit loop, which refers to the cyclical pattern of cue, routine, reward, and belief that drives habit formation.

Neuroscience research has shown that the basal ganglia, a region of the brain, plays a critical role in habit formation. This area of the brain is responsible for the formation of associations between cues and routines, as well as the automatic execution of learned behaviors (Graybiel 2008; Yin and Knowlton 2006).  

Habit formation is a complex process that is driven by a combination of environmental and internal cues, behavior, reinforcement, and individual perception. Understanding the mechanisms behind habit formation can help individuals to develop new habits or break old ones, and it can also be applied to various fields such as marketing, education, healthcare, and more.

Strategies for Habit Change 

Habit change is the process of modifying or breaking an existing habit. While habit formation is a natural process that occurs through repetition and reinforcement, habit change can be more challenging and requires a greater degree of conscious effort.

From the perspective of habit formation, one of the most effective ways to change a habit would be to identify and understand the cues, routines, rewards, and beliefs that drive the behavior. By becoming aware of these factors, an individual can begin to make changes to the habit loop and ultimately alter the behavior (Clear, 2018). 

Specifically, an effective strategy for changing a habit is to replace the existing routine with a new one that serves the same purpose but is healthier or more beneficial. For example, instead of snacking on junk food to cope with stress, an individual could replace this habit with a healthier one, such as going for a walk or doing a relaxation exercise.

Another approach to change a habit is to change the context in which the habit occurs. Changing the environment, the people around you, the time of day, or the place can make the habit more difficult to perform the habit and make it less automatic. 

Setting a goal and developing a plan to achieve it can also help to change habits. By having a clear and specific goal in mind, a person can focus on the desired outcome and work toward achieving it.

It's important to note that habit change is not a one-time event; it’s a process that requires persistence and patience. Changing a habit takes time, effort, and a commitment to the new behavior. Relapse is common and to be expected, but it is important not to give up and to keep trying (Duhigg 2012). 

In summary, habit change is the process of modifying or breaking an existing habit, which can be challenging but achievable. By understanding the cues, routines, rewards, and beliefs that drive a habit, an individual can make changes to the habit loop and ultimately alter the behavior. In addition, replacing existing habits with new, healthier ones, changing the context of the habit, setting goals, and being persistent and patient are all key strategies for habit change.


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Clear J (2018). Atomic habits: An easy & proven way to build good habits & break bad ones. Avery; Illustrated edition

Dickinson A (1985) Actions and habits: the development of behavioral autonomy. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 308: 67 – 78. 

Duhigg C (2012) The power of habit: Why we do what we do in life and business. New York: Random House

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Graybiel AM (2008) Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain. Annual Reviews in Neuroscience, 31: 359 – 387.

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Prochaska JO, DiClemente CC (1982) Transtheoretical therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 19: 276 – 288.

Robbins TW, Costa RM (2017) Habits. Current Biology, 27: R1200 - R1206. 

Smith KS, Graybiel AM (2016) Habit formation. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 18: 33 – 43. 

Yin HH, Knowlton BJ (2006) The role of the basal ganglia in habit formation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7: 464 – 476.

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